Shubh Divali

Just a quick shout to say:

Shubh Divali!


Om Srim Mahalakshmiyai Svaha

Om Srim Brzee


May Light always overcome Darkness!

May Knowledge forever eradicate Ignorance!

May Bliss prevail in all beings!

May All Beings come to know Absolute Truth!

May we all return to the One True and Infinite God!

Blessings of Love, Peace & Light!





Tara and the Cult of the Female in Buddhism

The female in Buddhism, despite its Master’s reluctance to admit women folk into the order, was its psychological need and comprised its spiritual structure. Compassion – the softest aspect of being, man or divine, which was the core of Buddhism, best revealed itself in a female frame. Hence, in the course of time, feminineness dominated the Buddhist ambience so much so that even the images of the male gods like Avalokiteshvara were conceived with a feminine touch in their appearance and as an essential aspect of personality.

The feminine tenderness and grace with which subsequent Buddhist images were conceived define the epitome of Buddhist iconographic perception and art. After benevolence and protectiveness, other virtues which a female best represented, were added to the cardinal of compassion this feminine aspect was more thrusting and diversified with the result that during Mahayana phase, more so in Tibetan Buddhism, the number of female deities reached in thousands.

Such psychodynamics apart, factors outside Buddhism, especially plurality cult of Brahmanism and preponderance of feminine elements, played a vital role in determining the male-female ratio and their relative significance in Buddhism too. By sixth century or so mutuality of Brahmanical male and female ‘devatas – gods, was completely revolutionized, the female gaining supremacy and priority over the male, even the great Trinity – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Texts like Devi-Mahatmya in the Markandeya Purana and Devi-Bhagavata among others installed Devi not only as possessing attributes and cumulative energies of all male gods but also as preceding them, even creation. Invoking a different form or aspect in each of the ‘dhyanas’ – meditative visions, these texts perceived Devi – Divine Female, as one and also as many, the former defining unity, and latter, diversity. To this plurality were added her ‘shaktis’ – subordinate powers. Aboriginals as well as Vedic Aryans had some early female deities but while those in the former tradition were just regional inoperative boon-bestowing icons, most of the latter represented aniconic elements or aspects of nature – usually terror inflicting, they appeased by laudation and ‘havya’! – offerings. The more accomplished post-Devi-Mahatmya form of Devi was, however, completely different from them both.


The Buddhism, too, had some early female deities, mostly inherited from erstwhile cults, as the Earth goddess and some yakshanis, Hariti in particular, from aboriginal tribes, and Lakshmi and Saraswati, from the Vedic. Interestingly, the Earth goddess who had iconic presence in pre-Buddhist cults was in Buddhism a symbolic presence, while Lakshmi and Saraswati, the aniconic Vedic deities, had in Buddhism well-defined iconographic forms. When the Buddha invoked the mother earth to be the witness to his act of conquering Mara and its hosts, he perceived her as all-seeing formless one competent to certify genuineness of his act.

Except the Lalitavistara that talks of her as appearing in person, or the Nidanakatha and Mahavastu that talk of her quaking and dispelling Mara and its hosts, in the entire Buddhist literature the mother earth remains a non-operative aniconic spiritual presence. The earth goddess is alluded to in texts time and again sometimes as Sthavara – Steadfast, having ten lac forms, and at other times as Aparajita – Undefeatable, in Buddhist narratives she does not appear again. In the Mahayana narratives she appears before the pilgrim Suthana but only to proclaim that she has been the witness of the ‘spiritual transformations of all Buddhas when they were to almost attain enlightenment’, a role identical to her earlier one.

Later, after Buddha’s mother Mayadevi was deified around Lumbini, where the Buddha was born, the role of mother-goddess shifted to her.

This human-born mother of their Master was more intimate a mother and inspired greater reverence than did the symbolic earth goddess. As the tradition has it, Mayadevi gave up her mortal frame soon after the Buddha was born, only to seek greater freedom to roam and re-visit her son as and when wished. Consequently, each time a Bodhisattva was born Mayadevi re-created herself to be his mother. She was thus the mother of all Bodhisattvas and all Buddhas. She was present on all eventful occasions in Buddha’s life, as at river Niranjana where he emaciated due to fasting. Her eyes melted into tears the moment she saw him. Buddha visited her in Tushit or Trayastrinsha Heaven and delivered sermon.

She is said to descend from Heaven on the Buddha’s Mahaparinirvana and weep over his robe.

The other woman who rose to divine heights and attained Buddhahood was Mahaprajapati Gautami, Buddha’s maternal aunt, who brought him up after his mother Mayadevi died. However, Gautami appears in Buddhist narratives only after Sakyamuni attains Buddhahood and accepting his path she embarks on her quest for liberation, as a regular monk. She was the first woman to seek monastic life on par with men and establish the order of female monks. She was the founder of nuns’ order and was the ever first preceptor of its first batch. She had thus an outstanding role in the growth of institutional life in Buddhism. The Buddhist tradition venerates Gautami as the female Buddha, who destroyed all her imperfections, acquired great powers, knew others’ thought, heard divine chorus, and was beyond the cycle of birth and death. No shrines are dedicated to Gautami but her legends figure in Buddhist sectarian art and faithful heads have always bowed in reverence over them.


Yakshas-yakshanis, often interchanged with ‘devatas’, were an integral part of pre-Buddhist cosmology and their worship a major cultic activity of Indian populace. Buddhism neither questioned or prohibited nor ignored yaksha-worship. Rather, yakshas-yakshanis were a recurring theme in early Buddhist art. Buddha even advised people to honor, worship and make offerings to yakshas as it brought prosperity. He even ordained that Hariti, the yakshani, would have a shrine at every monastery and also daily offering. Since then Hariti shrine became a monastery’s essential feature, and Hariti, its protecting deity. The benevolent matron surrounded by children, Hariti represented female procreativity, abundance and fertility.

Hariti, meaning thief, was initially a devourer of infants. Buddha transformed her into a protector of children and benefactor of humans. As the Mulasarvastivada Vinaya has it, Hariti was the daughter of Sata, patron yaksha of Rajagraha. Her name was Abhirati. After Sata died, his duties towards Rajagraha devolved on Abhirati and her brother Satagiri. Abhirati had, however, a different mind. Instead of serving as protector she had a vow to prey on children of Rajagraha and the same she revealed to her brother. When nothing could dissuade her, Satagiri married her to Panchaka, the son of the patron Yaksha of Gandhara. She had by him five hundred children. Before long, impelled to act by her baneful pledge she along with her offspring came back to Rajagraha and began abducting and devouring infants and children. Reports reached the king, and on his counselor’s advice offerings were made to the unknown yaksha but all without result. Meanwhile, a yaksha disclosed all that Abhirati was doing. The term Abhirati meant a ‘joyful girl’, something not co-relating with her act. People hence changed her name to Hariti, the thief. Finally, townsfolk approached Sakyamuni who moved by their grief decided to deal with Abhirati in her own coins. He concealed Abhirati’s youngest son Priyankara under his alms bowl. Not finding him anywhere, Abhirati broke into tears blinding her almost. Eventually, advised by a senior yaksha she also went to Sakyamuni and pledged that she would end her life that very day if her son was not restored. It afforded to Buddha the opportunity to make Abhirati realize the grief of parents who lost their only son when the loss of just one out of five hundred crazed her.

Realizing her ills Hariti empathized with parents whose children she had stolen and promised not only to desist but also protect and nourish them since onwards. She turned to Buddha as her spiritual guide and to his path. Buddha restored her child. He ordained that she would have a part of offerings, and with it she would nourish her offspring. He also revealed to her what turned her into a devourer of infants and children. In one of her previous birth she was a herdswoman in Rajagraha. One day when in market to sell her buttermilk, a huge crowd of people celebrating some festival invited her to dance. Accepting the invitation she participated and danced and aborted in exhaustion. Despite all that, she sold her buttermilk for five hundred mangos and staggered homewards. On her way she met a Pratyeka (solitary) Buddha. Impressed by him she offered him all her five hundred mangos. In her moments of deep reverence she pledged to avenge people of Rajagraha for her miscarriage by devouring their children.


Lakshmi and Saraswati are two Rig-Vedic deities in the Buddhist line. Their absorption into the Buddhist stream was perhaps necessitated by what they represented – Lakshmi, abundance, prosperity, fertility, happiness, beauty, luster, sovereignty among others, and Saraswati, art, culture, learning and all fruits of intellect. With followers from ranks and upper strata Buddhism could hardly ignore Lakshmi. And, an order as was Buddhism, esteeming wisdom, reasoning, oratorical skill . as the best of man, might not reject Saraswati who besides harnessing them had a lot in common with Prajnaparmita, the most venerated Buddhist divinity.

The early Buddhist texts are, however, evasively silent about them both. Lakshmi has significant presence in early Buddhist art at Bharhut, Sanchi . but Saraswati is completely missing. By around the 3rd century C.E., even Lakshmi disappears. Except a couple of them, Lakshmi images are not seen even in Gandhara sculptures. From around the sixth-seventh centuries Lakshmi images begin appearing on a larger scale but they are on Brahmanical lines, not Buddhist. Lakshmi’s presence in early art but absence in texts, and in art, her icons decorating subordinate spaces, not forming part of the proper Buddhist theme, are enigmatic. Maybe, while rich donors commissioning construction of a stupa, or a part, at Bharhut, Sanchi or anywhere, insisted inclusion of Lakshmi icons for her favor, the order of the monks that determined the line of a text, or the body of the theme to be carved at a sacred site, was reluctant to admit her into the pantheon, at least as regular deity. The conflict was perhaps resolved by including Lakshmi icons as subordinate motifs, not as official deity, or part of a regular Buddhist theme. Saraswati was the patron of intellectuals – poets, dramatists. Like rich donors these intellectuals weren’t instrumental in constructing a shrine, and, hence, Saraswati images weren’t patronized. Apart, Buddhism had Saraswati’s substitutes in Tara and Prajnaparmita, the deities with wider range of attributes and personality aspects. It was in late Tibetan Buddhism that the order of Lamas laid fresh impetus on Saraswati worship and consecrated her in Buddhist pantheon.


‘Whose smile made the sun to shine and frown made darkness to envelope the terrestrial sphere’ is how the 778 AD Nagari inscription of Kalasan Chandi sanctuary at Java pays homage to Tara. This apart, Prince Shailendra, the founder of sanctuary, lauds the goddess as the savior of men and the most noble and venerable one. The temple she then enshrined was just one but by around 12th century Java hardly had a household shrine which was without an image of Tara.

Tara, the principal Buddhist goddess conceived with a wide range of attributes and personality aspects, has in Buddhism the same status as Devi or Durga in the Brahmanical. As various Brahmanical goddesses look like different forms of Devi, most Buddhist deities look like Tara’s ‘bhedas’ – manifestations. As Devi preceded all gods, Tara as Prajnaparmita – Perfection of Wisdom and highest metaphysical principle, is claimed to have priority even over Buddha. Like Devi who revealed to Vishnu who he was and what for he was there, in Buddhism, Tara was the light and the prime source of Buddhahood and thus of all Buddhas. Like Devi, who is Shiva’s consort, Tara has been conceived as the consort of Avalokiteshvara. Like Devi who is the mother of the gods of the highest order, Tara, at least in Mahayana Buddhism, is the mother of all Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. Tara had an early presence in the Buddhist pantheon; however it was largely after the emergence of the Devi cult around the sixth-seventh centuries that Tara rose to a status on par with any other Buddhist god and was sometimes venerated like the great Master himself. Tibetan Buddhism has thousands of deities with local identities; Tara is the deity known to all, and her mantra – hymn, to every lip. In Tibet she is almost its national deity.


Scholars have discovered in early texts like the Mahabharata a term ‘tarini’ meaning one that carried one’s votaries across waters of tribulation and linked it with Tara suggesting her early origin and Brahmanical connection. The argument is little convincing. Tara’s form, as emerged later in the Tantra, or as one of the Mahavidyas, was not known to the writers of the Mahabharata or of the main eighteen Puranas. Not so early, she undoubtedly preceded Mahavidyas, as when with one Mahavidya, not ten, the Mahavidya-cult was just evolving, Tara had her fully evolved form. Her transformation as one of the Mahavidyas occurred long after.

Before her emergence as second Mahavidya Tara’s concept continued to change. In Agni Purana, she is a Yogini, not devata.

In Mayadipaka, she has one form while as Mahavidya, another. Shaivite tradition considers her as the transform of Mahamaya, the great illusion. Shiva’s epithet after he consumed arson during ocean-churning was Akshobhya – unperturbed, and Tara was his consort. Tara’s prime presence is, however, in Tantra. Brahmanical Tantra-books do not go back beyond 6th century. Obviously, the Brahmanical Tara must have emerged only afterwards. The Java inscription, dated 778, and Chalukyan dated circa 1095-96, comprise her earliest known epigraphic records. Not as popular in South as in North, Tara is the principal deity of all significant Tantras. In Brahmanical texts too, Chinachara-krama – worship-mode as prevailed in China, was the accepted mode of her worship. Apart, the legend that sage Vashishtha went to Mahachina to learn the mode of worshipping Tara from Buddha, as the same was not known to anybody else, as also her form different from all other Brahmanical divinities, suggest that the Buddhist Tara was her prototype.

However, the two concepts of the goddess are widely different. Despite that in Buddhism Tara has many manifestations, she is almost always benevolent, compassionate, gentle, playful, young, lustrous, and protective. The Brahmanical Tara, especially as the Mahavidya, is almost always fierce, often horrible to behold, and potentially dangerous, the same as Kali.

She is usually conceived as riding a corpse in the cremation ground, or as standing in the attitude of an archer – pratyalidha posture. Not that Tara does not have a fierce form in Buddhism, or a benign one in Brahmanism, in general, in the former context she manifests gentle aspects, while in the latter, fierce ones. Brahmanical texts allude to her several forms, however, among them three – Ekajata, Nilasaraswati and Ugra are more significant. Tararahasya, Taratantra, Tantrasara and Mantramahodadhi are the principal Brahmanical texts on Tara’s Tantrika-cult.


Ambiguity prevails in regard to both, place and period of the origin of Tara. Buddha was reluctant to admit womenfolk into the Sangh. Hence, an early worship-cult of female principle might be a remote possibility. Western scholars, misled by her 7th-8th century representations in stone, fix her origin around then and somewhere in Himalayan region, more likely Tibet, or around. No doubt, Tara’s early pictorial representations, in caves at Nishik, Ellora, Kanheri etc., are datable to 6th-7th centuries, but a concept or a metaphysical principle would emerge so extensively and with such pre-eminence in art in simultaneity to its origin is something difficult to concede. The journey of a religious concept from the mind it was born in to the mind that believed it, and further, to formal visualization into stone or any other medium, which represented it, might have taken pretty long time, a few centuries or so. More reasonably, Tara had her origin during early centuries of the Common Era, perhaps as a cult already prevalent amongst aboriginals or others, which the liberal Buddhism readily adopted. Being mightier and more popular the Tara-cult absorbed other concurrent similar cults and emerged as the mightiest. Tara’s visual transforms emerged late, not before 4th century at least. Early Avalokiteshvara images are without Tara, which suggests that her form as his consort was a later development, perhaps in pursuance to Ardhanarishvara model of Shiva and Shakti.

Such academic allusions that the worship of Tara was revived in Tibet by Nagarjuna, the founder of Madhyamika school, apart, the origin of Tara abounds in several interesting myths. It is said that all creatures of the world began lamenting when Avalokiteshvara was about to attain nirvana – final liberation. Avalokiteshvara heard them. His heart melted in compassion for their suffering and a tear rolled from his eyes which turned into Tara. The so-born Tara was the essence of the essence of compassion. The Swatantra-tantra relates her origin in a Cholana lake, which lay on the western slope of the mount Meru, the Indo-Tibetan borderland which had around it several lakes and many monasteries. People living there looked for a deity to help cross these lakes. Ultimately, their desire had divine sanction. On Cholana’s right bank close to village Tar was a mountain. People one day saw on it twenty-one figures of the goddess Tara which have come into existence of their own.

Since then the great goddess was always there to help cross the lakes. This form of Tara is essentially her original form. Root ‘tri’ from which the term Tara developed itself means to ‘swim across’. All her names popular in Tibet, China, Korea and Japan give this meaning. In islands like Java she was especially popular, perhaps for helping people against tempestuous seas. In Buddhism this aspect was not so significant but as ‘Tarini’ she enabled her votaries to wade across ‘bhavasagara’ – ocean of life.


Otherwise innumerable, Tara’s main forms are five :

  • Sita or White Tara
  • Shyama or Green Tara
  • Bhrakuti or Yellow Tara
  • Ekajata or Blue Tara
  • Kurukulla or Red Tara

White Tara manifests in seven forms, Green Tara in ten, Yellow Tara in five, Blue Tara in two, and Red Tara just in one. These five forms relate to five sacred colors associated with five Dhyani-Buddhas whose Shaktis these forms are. They also represent five cosmic elements. Her two other forms : Rajeshvari-Tara, equated with Gauri or Vishvamata, and the blue lotus-carrying Pitha-Tara also occur in the Sadhanamala. Apart, the sacred Tara-mantra commemorates her in eleven forms. In yet another classification her forms are twenty-one.

The Vajrasana White Tara, her foremost form, represents Prajnaparmita. She is usually two-armed, right held in varada, and left in vitarka-mudra – teaching posture, besides it carries the stem of a full blown lotus. She generally has a third eye, symbolic of knowledge, but sometimes as many as seven, grafted on soles and hands. As the Shakti of Amoghasiddha, she carries stems of lotuses in both hands. Lotus supports a Vishvavajra – double thunderbolt. Texts perceive her as the timeless youth of sixteen, lustrous as moon, and adorned in white and with brilliant jewels. In Tantra, she manifests as white complexioned Janguli, with two or four arms, wearing white garment, white jewels and carrying white serpents. With original two hands she plays on vina, of the other, right is held in abhaya and left holds a white serpent. Rays of moon form her garland.

Green Tara carries a fully or partially closed blue lotus. With right leg pendent reaching a foot-rest made of a smaller lotus she sits on a lotus-throne. Sometimes her seat is supported on two roaring lions. She carries the image of Amoghasiddha in her head-dress. When with Avalokiteshvara, she is usually on his right. A urna mark defines her forehead. She is sometimes accompanied by her own eight forms, and at other times, by Ekajata and Marichi, or Janguli and Mahamayuri, her manifestations. When with Janguli and Mahamayuri, she becomes Dhanada, giver of wealth. As Dhanada she has four arms, upper ones in usual postures, lower ones carrying a goad and a lasso. Some texts perceive her as two-armed, one carrying a lotus and other held in varada, and as three-eyed. Surrounded by Shaktis having various colors she is conceived with a smiling face, as adorned with bright pearls and wearing shoes set with jewels.

Yellow Tara or Bhrikuti, the goddess that frowns, is Tara’s angry form. She carries Amoghasiddha in diadem, holds her right hand in varada and carries in the left a blue lotus. She is flanked by Marichi on her right and by Ekajata on left. She is conceived as a celestial maiden with timeless youth and adorned with jewels. Khadiravarni Tara and Vajra Tara are her forms. Adorned with all sorts of ornaments, she is represented as seated in the midst of Matrikas, divine mothers, having eight arms, right ones carrying vajra, arrow, conch, varada, and the left, lotus-bow, diamond-goad, noose and the forefinger of the fourth raised towards sky, four faces, yellow, black, white and red from left to right, and three eyes in each face. She sits on the moon placed on a lotus representing universe. In another innovation, she sits on a diamond-throne, has red body color and four Buddhas on her crown.

Blue Tara or Ekajata, one with single chignon, manifests Tara’s ferocious – ugra aspect and is hence known as Ugra Tara. As represented in texts, she stands in archer’s posture, has short stature, one face; three eyes and protuberant abdomen, is fierce and terrible-looking, wears necklace of human heads, and is adorned with a blue lotus. She rides a corpse, is adorned with eight snakes and five mudras – attitudes, has red and round eyes and protruding tongue, and is in the prime of youth. Always very happy she is resplendent because of her wild laughter and dreadful with her protruding jaws. She wears tiger-skin around her waist. In her two right hands she carries sword and scissors, in the left, blue lotus and skull. Her chignon is brown, and head adorned by Akshobhya.

The four-armed Red Tara or Kurukulla is red-complexioned, sits on red lotus and wears red garment. One of her right hands is held in abhaya, while in other is carried an arrow, in one of the left is held a quiver of jewels, and in other, an arrow made of red-lotus-buds set on a bow of flowers drawn up to ears.

Many of Tara’s forms are merely her attributes. Over-emphasis make them look like her bhedas – forms. She is one throughout. Her attributes are two-fold, pacific and angry, or five-fold according to five sacred colors, pacific being white or green, and angry red, yellow or blue. Pacific forms have smiling expression, long and wavy hair and ornaments that befitted a Bodhisattva, and angry, fierce and awe-striking. Many of Tara’s forms – Janguli, Prajnaparmita, Marichi, Bhrakuti. have emerged in the tradition as independent goddesses and have shrines dedicated to them.

This Article by Prof. P. C. Jain and Dr. Daljeet


Durga: Adi-Shakti

Durga, the most highly worshipped goddess of Indian masses held in alike reverence in all sectarian lines, even Buddhist and Jain, in her form as Durga or in one of her many transforms – the ferocious Tara of Buddhists or the nurturing mother Ambika of Jains, is the ultimate of divine power capable of eradicating every evil and every wrong, and nurturing and sustaining life in whichever form it exists. Not a mere epiphenomenal expansion of a visual culture that the Indian land is known to have now for millenniums, or a disembodied divine authority sustaining in believing minds, Durga is perceived as a dynamic presence with a form, or rather in any form engaged in eradicating the dark and everything adverse to life and sustaining good and righteous.

The term ‘Durga’ brings to mind a multi-armed lion-riding divinity that on one hand is possessed of rare feminine beauty and imperishable youth, and on the other, carries in her hands various instruments of war and on her face the determination to avenge her devotee’s tormenter and punish a wrong-doer, and all combined with a unique quiescence and confidence as if triumph is the foregone conclusion of all her battles against evil. The Puranic tradition inclines to venerate Durga as just one of the names of Devi, the cosmic Divine Female who created, sustained and destroyed. Despite such preference of the Puranas for the term ‘Devi’ for defining the overall vision of the cosmic Divine Female even initially Durga acquires among Devi’s other manifestations a distinction denotative of a class which is not the same as epithets like Jagad-mata, Jagadamba, Vishveshwari, or whatever. The term Durga brings to mind a specific image which these epithets do not, perhaps because they are used with some kind of commonness for Devi’s all forms.

Devi-Mahatmya: The Glory of Goddess

The Devi-Mahatmya in the Markandeya Purana, a fifth-sixth century text (though with his presence on many occasions alluded to in the Mahabharata the date of sage Markandeya seems to be much earlier; maybe, Markandeya was the common appellation of the sages in the line, not the name of an individual sage, or in view of his timeless contribution the name of sage Markandeya was subsequently added), perceives the aggregate cosmic energy as Mahamaya: Vishnu’s ‘shakti’ that the text defines as Devi manifesting in three aspects, viz., Mahalakshmi, Mahakali and Mahasaraswati, having different forms and appearances but a common objective of avenging the wrong-doer. This in the Mahabharata like early texts and sculptures of the early centuries of the Common Era is the Durga’s role. Quite significant as it is, the Devi-Mahatmya uses the term ‘Durga’, as it uses the term ‘Devi’, in its all sections devoted to either of Mahalakshmi, Mahakali and Mahasaraswati, which indicates that these are as much the Durga’s manifestations, as they are the Devi’s. The text perceives Devi primarily as the redeemer of ‘durgam’ – the most difficult, a situation, act, or objective, and hence, Devi is Durga – the redeemer of ‘durgam’, in her every aspect.

The text is full of expressions that are denotative of the Durga’s supreme divinity, such as ‘Durgam jayakhyam’, that is, victory is her other name, or ‘Durgasi Durgabhawasagaranaurasanga’, that is, Durga is the boat that takes across the cycle of birth and death; the one, that is, Durga as victory is the ultimate of all worldly acts, and the other, that is, Durga as ‘Tarini’ – redeemer from the cycle of birth and death is the ultimate of every spiritual endeavour. In the ‘Viniyoga’ – the fore-verse or the introductory couplet of the second Canto, the Devi-Mahatmya asserts this supremacy of Durga metaphysically too. It alludes to Durga as ‘Durga bijam’, that is, Durga, the seed. ‘Bija’ is a widely used term in Sanskrit for defining the ‘essential root’ from which a form evolves. All major ‘Mantras’ – mystic syllables, or hymns pregnant with mystic powers, have their ‘bija-mantras’, their essential pith out of which the related mantra’s body evolves. Accordingly, the term ‘Durga bijam’ suggests that the text perceives Durga as the basic essence of the Devi’s all manifestations. Thus, the Devi-Mahatmya might be seen as considering Devi and Durga as one, and this same reflects in most of the commentaries of the Devi-Mahatmya part of the Markandeya Purana that have often preferred calling this section of the text as ‘Durga-Saptashati’.

Durga’s Antiquity

As regards her antiquity Durga is an entity beyond time. Even the Markandeya Purana that identifies Mahamaya – Devi’s proto form, as Vishnu’s ‘shakti’ contends with specificity that it was her who gave to Vishnu, as also to Brahma and Shiva, their forms. This statement has two implications, one that she preceded not only Vishnu but the great Trinity, and the other, that she was Vishnu’s ‘shakti’ by invocation and by her favour, not by Vishnu’s authority. Thus, by whatever name, the Great Goddess preceded all forms, their creator, sustainer and destroyer, the time that spanned them and the space where they evolved. Ironically, sage Markandeya sought to subordinate her to Vishnu as his ‘shakti’ but overwhelming him, or rather the entire Trinity, the goddess bowed them to her subordination. In the tradition gods, even Trinity, are often seen bowing to her in devotion but Durga is never seen bowing to any, divine or demonic, justifying her name ‘Jaya’.

Obviously, the scale of time is not Durga’s scale. It is only the date of her earliest appearance in a medium, text, or iconography, by which her antiquity is determined. When in the eleventh Canto of the Devi-Mahatmya Devi declares that in the twenty-eighth eon of Vaivasvata Manvantara she would incarnate and kill the demon Durgam and assume Durga as her name, sage Markandeya does not suggest the period of Durga’s emergence as posterior to the period of his text. The concurrent age is Vaivasvata Manvantara but it is only by very complicated astronomical calculations that one can know when exactly its twenty-eighth eon passed, perhaps millions of years ago, and hence, it is not known when Devi assumed Durga as her name. Thus, mythically the Great Goddess manifested as Durga in the twenty-eighth eon of this Manvantara, but it is simply a period beyond human calculation.

Durga: The Initial Manifestation of Devi

Thus, Devi had in any medium or tradition her earliest manifestation as Durga. It seems that the Devi’s form as Durga, a goddess of battlefield always in action, as nurturing mother or as avenging warrior engaging in battle one demon or other, has been conceived in stark contrast to the passive non-operating votive image of the Mother Goddess of Indus settlements, and the nature-deities of the ‘Yajna’ of the Rig-Veda, perhaps around the same time when the other two cults were in greater prevalence. Excavations of Indus or Harappan sites reveal no signs of a warrior goddess, and barring a few contentions, such as makes S. K. Ramachandra Rao who contends in his Durga-Kosha that Durga is one of the goddesses that the Rig-Veda enumerates, broadly Durga is not considered a goddess from the Rig-Vedic pantheon. Whatever the merit of such claims and counter-claims in regard to Durga’s position in the Rig-Veda, there is absolute unanimity in regard to Durga’s presence in the Mahabharata, the great epic datable broadly to sixth-fifth century B.C.

Shri Durga Prarthana: The Complete Prayer: Complete Book of all the Essential Chants and Prayers with Original Text, Transliteration and Translation in English (With 2 CDs containing the Chants and Prayers)
It seems that by the period of the Mahabharata not only Durga was a popularly invoked deity but also had a body of hymns, and perhaps some shrines and some kind of imagery too, dedicated to her. The Mahabharata lauds Durga, by her name as Durga, not Devi, as Tribhuwaneshvari – the goddess that ruled all three worlds. Though the Mahabharata does not use the term ‘durgam’, which is repeatedly used in the Devi-Mahatmya comprising the primary contextual basis for her name as Durga, in the Mahabharata too, the Great Goddess is commemorated in situations which are ‘durgam’. The Mahabharata does not confound Durga with Devi as the Devi-Mahatmya seems to sometimes do. The great epic alludes to her in all clarity and with absolute distinction as ‘Devim Durgam Tribhuwaneshvari’ – goddess Durga, the ruler of three worlds, and at another place, as ‘Parajayaya shatrunam Durgastotra mudiraye’ – commemoration of Durga Stotra defeats enemies.

As stipulated between them and Kauravas, the Pandavas were required to pass the thirteenth year of their exile in complete concealment without being seen and identified, a really difficult situation. They decide to disguise as cook, tutor, attendant etc. and seek jobs as the household servants of king Virata, the ruler of Matsya-desha. Before they enter the city of Virata, Yudhishthara along with his brothers commemorate ‘Devim Durgam Tribhuwaneshvari’, obviously for the accomplishment of their errand. Again, just when the Great War is in the offing and the forces of Kauravas and Pandavas are arrayed in the battlefield, Krishna commands Arjuna to commemorate with pure heart ‘Durga-stotra’ – hymns dedicated to Durga, for ‘Parajayaya shatrunam’, that is, for the defeat of the enemy. Arjuna commemorates Durga and then she appears in the sky and grants Pandavas the boon of victory. In ‘Devim Durgam Tribhuwaneshvari’ the Mahabharata uses the term ‘Devim’ as Durga’s defining epithet, not like the Devi-Mahatmya where ‘Durga’ is Devi’s epithet. Notably, it is Krishna, Vishnu’s incarnation, who perceives in Durga the ultimate power, obviously even beyond Vishnu, to defeat enemies.

Durga’s priority as the Devi’s principal manifestation reflects more powerfully in sculptures of the early centuries of the Common Era. Durga, multi-armed, as also normal two-armed, carrying various weapons in her hands and sometime crammed into her coiffure, is with absolute clarity the goddess of battlefield.

As suggest a good number of her sculptures that have along her icons a buffalo figure, elimination of Mahishasura, the buffalo-demon, was not only her exploit but the legend seems to have been more popular than others. This Devi-form, avenging tormenters and wrong-doers, was essentially the ultimate goddess of battlefield and represented iconically the Mahabharata’s Durga who ruled all three worlds and defeated enemies in the battlefield.

The Durga icons from around the fifth-sixth centuries record a significant departure in the iconography of the goddess. The goddess is seen still carrying in her hands the instruments of annihilation, but is also seen carrying in her left arm a child. Prof. Pratapaditya Pal has rightly perceived it as the phase when the avenging Goddess had synthesized into her being also the ‘nurturing Mother’: The absolute vision of Durga, the Universal Mother and the Ultimate Protector.

This form of Durga seems to have fully concretized when sage Markandeya composed his poem ‘Devi-Mahatmya’. Perhaps for greater dimensional breadth or for unity between different sectarian groups sage Markandeya first alternated Durga with Devi, a far more inclusive and somewhat abstract term, and then split her form into her three manifestations: Mahalakshmi, Mahakali and Mahasaraswati, all multi-armed, all carrying in their various hands instruments of destruction, and all conceived with large breasts full of milk and motherly attributes, representing Durga’s warlike bearing as also her motherhood. These new forms, viz., Mahalakshmi, Mahakali and Mahasaraswati, were more in line with the ‘Tri-murti’ cult.

The Rig-Veda talked of Vak, or Saraswati, and Shri, another name of Lakshmi, and excavations have revealed signs of a ferocious divinity being worshipped by Indus settlers. However, the Devi-Mahatmya’s models of Mahalakshmi, Mahakali and Mahasaraswati were different from both. Mahalakshmi and Mahasaraswati seem to have been modeled after Durga, and Mahakali, is textually too, a transform of the principal goddess of the battlefield, Devi or Durga.

Thus, Devi or her manifestations, Mahalakshmi, Mahakali or Mahasaraswati, are Durga’s forms, and Devi is merely her defining epithet as is Devata of the male divinities. The term ‘Devata’ does not denote a specific divinity because of such Devatas’ plurality. Devi’s singularity makes the term ‘Devi’ synonymous to Durga. Even in Puranic tradition the Devi’s Mahalakshmi, Mahakali and Mahasaraswati manifestations seem to have failed to long retain at least their Durga-like martial role. Mahalakshmi, as Lakshmi and Mahasaraswati, as Saraswati, shed finally their warlike bearing and join Lord Vishnu’s and Brahma’s households with roles completely different from what they had in their proto Mahalakshmi and Mahasaraswati forms.

On the contrary, Durga’s form explodes to variously manifest, even in subsidiary forms like Matrikas and Mahavidyas: all the forms of battlefield.

Her tender aspect as Parvati, and ferocious, as Kali, accompany Shiva as his consorts, one completely dedicated, and other, moody, unpredictable and dominating, perhaps as suited Shiva’s two major aspects, ‘lalita’ and ‘Bhairava’. Whatever about the early prevalence of the cult of a Kali-like ferocious goddess, the earliest known allusions to Parvati are from the Puranas, though in a brief span, from around seventh century onwards, there crops up not only a huge body of myths but also her numerous icons mostly representing her as engaged in ‘panchagni-tapa’ – performing penance in the midst of five fires.

Annihilation of Demons Shumbha and Nishumbha

As already discussed, Durga, a dynamic and militant goddess, had emerged in theology by at least the sixth-fifth century B. C. As suggests ‘Parajayaya shatrunam Durgastotra mudiraye’, people around the period of the Mahabharata invoked her by reciting her ‘stotra’ – commemorative verses. It indicates that Durga was by then an established deity and had devoted to her a body of commemorative hymns and perhaps a few other texts, and was invoked for defeating one’s enemy. Notably, in the tenth Canto of the Devi-Mahatmya, while confronting the Goddess, Shumbha, the demon chief, cries in fury ‘Balawalepadduste twam ma Durge garwamavaha’ – O ye wicked Durga, thy power, thou art proud of, is false. It is well settled that in fury, or any kind of emotion, the mind bursts with words which are its most natural idiom. Obviously, Shumbha uttered Durga’s name instinctively as if he used it in routine.

As regards her name as ‘Durga’, the Devi-Mahatmya makes two propositions. It emphasizes more on the Devi’s power to redeem her votaries from ‘durgam’ that she got ‘Durga’ as her name: almost an epithet extolling her role. In the eleventh chapter of the Devi-Mahatmya Devi herself announces her emergence at a given time when she would kill the demon Durgam and assume Durga as her name. Though redeemer of ‘durgam’ – a difficult situation, or ‘durgati’ – a great misfortune, which some texts consider the basis for her name as Durga, ever continues to be Durga’s role, annihilation of demon Durgam and hence Durga her name is more often the contention of the later texts and theological tradition. The simple allusion to demon Durgam in the Devi-Mahatmya is expanded into a body of fully grown myths. They not only add to the legend a dimensional breadth but also come out with details of Durgam’s demonic acts and lineage, some linking him with Ruru’s clan, and other with Dhruta’s and Hiranyaksha’s. It is, however, unanimously contended that Durgam sought to destroy the Vedas, and that Devi had killed him for such act of him, and this gave her, her Durga name. Some texts contend that she was protector of ‘durgas’ – forts, and hence her Durga name.

Origin of Durga As Devi : Adi-Shakti

In regard to the origin of Durga or Devi there prevail two traditions, one that venerates her as Adi-Shakti – primordial cosmic energy, suggestive of her presence when the Creation had yet to take effect and ever before and after, and the other, suggestive of her creation out of gods’ divine attributes for accomplishing an objective.

Maha Shakti

As has the Puranic tradition which culminates in the Devi Bhagavata, millions of years after the Great Deluge, and all forms, except the all-encompassing ocean and abyssal darkness, perished, floating on a banyan leaf on the surface of the ocean of milk there emerged Vishnu as child known in the tradition as Bala Mukunda. Bewildered he looked around and his mind questioned, ‘Who am I?’, and ‘Who created me and what for?’ When wrestling with a volley of questions from within, Vishnu heard an ethereal voice that announced : ‘Sarvam khalvidamevaham, Nanyadasti sanatanam’, that is, ‘All that is, I am, there is nothing eternal but me’. Soon after, Vishnu had in his vision the form of a lustrous youthful four-armed female divinity carrying a conch, disc, club and lotus, and clad in divine costume and ornaments, and with twenty-one celestial powers in attendance. Vishnu instantly realised that she was the Adi-Shakti, Devi, and paid her homage. She revealed to Vishnu his identity and role. According to this tradition, Durga, the Adishakti’s initial manifestation, preceded time and all forms, and had manifestations, not birth or origin.

Devi, Created Out of Gods’ Attributes

The other tradition, and more akin to public mind, relates to her emergence for killing Mahisha, a buffalo demon by name and appearance. He was born to the demon king Rambha of his buffalo-wife. Rambha was a Shiva-devotee. The childless Rambha, by long rigorous penance, pleased Shiva who granted him the boon that he would be born to him as his son. On way-back Rambha was fascinated by a she-buffalo’s beauty. He married her and Mahisha was born. As this tradition has it, Mahisha was part of Shiva. By his great penance Mahisha won from Brahma the boon of invincibility against all male. With this boon he grew highly ambitious and arrogant, as also atrocious and cruel. He grabbed the entire earth and also invaded heaven and defeated Indra and all other gods forcing them to flee. Gods approached Brahma and knew from him about Mahisha’s boon of invincibility against all males and that, if ever, only a female could kill him. Gods, theirs’ being a male world, felt helpless. On Brahma’s advice they went to Shiva, and finally to Vishnu and after due deliberations Vishnu suggested that with their aggregate divine lustre they should create a female power to kill Mahisha.

Lord Vishnu had hardly finished when from Brahma’s body burst a rare lustre, red as ruby, which was both, hot and cold; from Shiva’s body there exploded a burst of white bright rays, as brilliant as diamond; similar brilliance burst from Vishnu’s body, blue as blue sapphire; from the bodies of Indra, Varuna, Kuber, Yama, Agni and other gods also burst similar lustre, which all combined and soon transformed into an eighteen-armed youthful woman possessed of astonishing beauty, rare feminine grace and divinity such as had never enshrined a female form. A form for battlefield, she also represented the absolute womanhood on earth. Her face was formed by the powers of Shiva, hair, by Yama’s, all eighteen arms, by Vishnu’s, breasts, eye-brows, ears, nose, teeth, fingernails, waist, thighs and ankles, buttocks, toe-nails, feet, eyes, respectively by the powers of Moon, Twilight, Vayu, Kuber, Prajapati, Vasu, Indra, Varuna, Earth, Brahma, Sun, Agni.

On Vishnu’s instance gods gifted to her their ornaments and clothes as also weapons and other attributes. Kshirasagara – ocean of milk, presented to the goddess imperishable clothes and precious jewels, Shesh, a necklace inlaid with celestial gems glistening like crores of suns, Varuna, a garland of lotuses that never faded, and a noose, and Himavana, his lion for her mount. Vishnu replicated a disc from his and offered it to the goddess. Alike, Shiva replicated and gave her his trident, Varuna, his conch, Agni, his ‘shakti’, Vayu, his bow and quiver full of arrows, Indra, thunderbolt and bell, Yama, ‘danda’, Brahma, ‘kamandalu’, Kala – Death, sword and shield, Vishvakarma, his battle-axe and other divine powers, their respective attributes : mace, armour, gold-pot full of honey etc. Finally, gods extolled the goddess by various epithets and hymns and prayed with folded hands to kill arrogant Mahishasura, their tormenter and restore to them Indraloka and their power.

The Goddess delightfully accepted the prayer. With a thunderous roar that rocked the earth from one end to other she proceeded to battlefield. Hearing the roar and taking it as some kind of threat Mahisha with his army and all demon warriors rushed in the direction the roar came from. He saw a female form with thousands of arms covering the entire cosmos. A baffled Mahisha commanded his generals to kill the woman. Chikshura, Chamara, Udagra, Mahahanu, Asiloma, Baskala, Parivarita, Bidala, Uddhata, Ugrasya, Ugravirya, Durdhara, Durmukha and many more, each with a large contingents comprising millions of demon-soldiers, attacked the goddess from different directions and in courses but the Devi destroyed all their weapons and killed them.

When Mahisha saw his warriors’ plight, the enraged demon took to buffalo’s form and whirling like a devastating cyclone he began tossing the earth and oceans like shuttles with his tail. With his horns he moved mountains, and with his feet, foot-nails and muzzle cleft the earth and skies. When the goddess was about to cut his head, the demon transformed into an elephant. Alike, when the goddess’ mount lion caught the elephant’s trunk and was about to kill him, he retuned to his buffalo form. This time Devi caught hold of him and when he was about to return to his human form, with barely the head coming out of the buffalo’s torso, she decapitated it. The Devi-Mahatmya perceives this form of Devi as Mahalakshmi.

The Devi-Bhagavata, another equally venerated text on Devi, has a slightly varying versions of the myth: something on the line of Shumbha myth, where hearing of the exceptional beauty of the Devi Shumbha sends his messenger to her to persuade her to become his wife, and when he fails, his army chief Dhumralochana to bring her by force. In the Devi-Bhagavata version, hearing of her rare beauty, Mahisha sends his prime minister to her and bring her to him without doing her any harm. Mahisha’s prime minister does as commanded but Devi tells him, to his utter surprise, that she had come to kill Mahisha to redeem gods of his atrocities. She also tells him to advise his master to leave Indraloka and return to nether world, which alone could save his life. Details of war are almost identical in the two texts.

As Devi Durga’s Other Exploits

A dynamic and militant goddess, Durga’s modus operandi was quite diversified. Often she killed demons by her own hands but sometimes she got it done by powers she created from within her, and sometimes, by assisting other gods, Vishnu in particular. Once when Vishnu was in long sleep, his ears yielded some wax from which two demons, Madhu and Kaitabha, were born. The notorious demons wanted to kill Brahma and destroy Vedas. Devi, as Nidra-devi, not only woke Vishnu but when he was unable to kill them even after ten thousand years of battle, she deluded the two demons to grant to Vishnu the boon by which he could kill them.

Hayagriva, a demon with horse-head, had become invincible as under a boon by Devi herself he could be killed by none other than Hayagriva himself. First, under a curse by her, in her form as Lakshmi, Vishnu’s head drops, and then on her advice a horse-head is planted on his torso transforming him into another Hayagriva – horse-headed, and thus enabling him to kill Hayagriva, the demon.

Identically to Mahisha’s legend the texts have the legend of annihilation of Shumbha and Nishumbha who too under a boon could not be killed by a male – born or unborn. As in the other myth, after her creation by gods’ collective powers, Durga, glistening like a thousand suns, occupies a hill-top. Hearing of her rare beauty the demon chief Shumbha sends to her his messenger and, when he fails to persuade her for becoming his master’s consort, two mighty demons, Chanda and Munda, to drag her to him. Seeing her seated on the hill-top Chanda and Munda, with a huge army of demons, rushed towards her. Their arrogance enraged the goddess and in fury her face and entire body turned black and a ferocious form was born. This ferocious form of the goddess severed the two demons’ heads and brought them to Durga. In later tradition, this ferocious form of Durga is venerated and extensively represented in sculptures from ninth-tenth century onwards as Chamunda, the destroyer of Chanda and Munda.

Hearing of the fate of Chanda and Munda the enraged Shumbha sends his army general Dhumralochan to catch hold of her and produce her before him, and when he too was killed, his minister Raktabija to punish the woman and present her to him. Raktabija had a boon by which each drop of his blood, no sooner than it fell on the earth, transformed into a new Raktabija demon. From within her Durga summoned Kali who with her all-encompassing tongue covered the entire earth and swallowed every drop of the demon’s blood before it fell on the earth.

An Episode from Devi Mahatmya (Matrikas Fighting against Demons)
She also swallowed hordes of demons that such blood-drops had produced. Consequently Raktabija was killed. Likewise, Nishumbha, Shumbha’s brother, and later Shumbha himself were killed by Durga in her one form or other. In her battle against Shumbha and his hordes the goddess sought assistance of Sapta-Matrikas – seven mothers, namely Brahmani, Maheshvari, Karttikeyi or Kaumari, Vaishnavi, Varahi, Narasimhi, and Indrani. Though identified as the powers of male gods, Brahma, Shiva, Karttikeya Vishnu, Vishnu in his Boar and Narsimha incarnations, and Indra, they were Devi’s own manifestations.

Iconic Vision of Durga

In Durga’s icons, votive or aesthetic, her eighteen-armed lion-riding form, killing the buffalo demon Mahisha, known in the tradition as ‘Mahishasura-Mardini’, prevails over her all other forms. Even her aesthetic beauty is best represented in her Mahishasura-Mardini form for it combines sublime beauty with sublime force, and of course, strangeness of anatomy with absolute physical balance. This form of Durga is, hence, as much the theme of aesthetic art as of sanctum images. Her brilliantly clad and ornamented form is conceived with youthful vigour, golden-hued, rare beauty and divine quiescence on the face. Her images are modeled with pot-like large breasts, as filled with milk, representing her as the feeding mother as also her absolute womanhood.

As the Devi-Mahatmya has it, when in battlefield, Durga creates thousands of hands, or as many as would enable her to destroy the enemy. Hence, her figures are conceived as multi-armed, their number varying usually from four to eighteen, that is, four, six, eight, ten, twelve, sixteen or eighteen. The attributes she carries in her hands are variously listed in different texts. The Markandeya Purana itself has variations. Against her eighteen-armed Mahishasura-Mardini form carrying rosary, axe, mace, arrow, thunderbolt, lotus, bow, chain, noose, rod, ‘shakti’, sword, shield, conch, bell, honey-pot, spear and disc, as visualized in the Devi-Mahatmya part, she has been conceived elsewhere in the Markandeya Purana merely with ten arms carrying in them sword, disc, mace, arrow, bow, rod, spear, ‘bhushundi’, head and conch, and at another place, just with four arms carrying in them conch, disc, sword and trident.

Durga is sometimes seen carrying serpent, dagger, goad among others besides a crescent on her coiffure and a third eye on her forehead: her Shaivite attributes. In India’s most parts her sanctum images are either operative as when killing demon Mahisha or static, as seated on her lion, though in both cases she is represented as carrying her essential weapons as would a goddess of battlefield. In South, she is usually lotus-seated and is worshipped by various other names. In folk traditions of Bengal, Orissa, Bihar – Mithila region in special, Uttar Pradesh and tribal belts of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh Durga is the most popularly worshipped deity. Her cow-dung images, symbolic of fertility and purity, those in colours or in ceramic medium, might be seen adorning the walls of any dwelling, a mud-house or a sophisticated mansion.

This article by Prof. P.C. Jain and Dr Daljeet.